Common sole - solea solea - tong.png
Layer Info
Category Fish
Editable No
Data source Ecosystem simulation
Extremely Low
Extra High


Example species: Sole

Habitat: Demersal
Main role: Predator
Trophic level: 4

Diet: The main preys are polychaetes and meiofauna, but large specimens also eat small fish such as gobies and dragonets.

Threats: Highly commercial. Sole is mainly caught in the southern North Sea and off the Danish coast. In the English fishery, the high value of sole makes it one of the most important species targeted by inshore vessels using trawls and fixed nets. Sole is also taken as a target and by-catch species by offshore beam- and otter-trawlers and gillnetters.===MSP Challenge===

The flatfish group includes the following species: witch, long-rough dab, flounder, lemon sole, turbot, brill, megrim, halibut, sole, plaice and dab.

Flatfish is a month-by-month, computer generated data layer following calculations made by the ecosystem simulation (EwE).

Different pressures generate by human activities (noise, bottom disturbance, surface disturbance, artificial substrate) have different, complex effects on marine species in terms of movement, survival and procreation.

Flatfish are caught by all fishing fleets, but mostly by industrial and pelagic trawl.

Food web2.png


In different languages

  • SN: solea solea
  • EN: common sole
  • NL: tong
  • GE: Seezunge
  • DK: søtunge
  • FR: sole commune
  • NO: tunge
  • SE: sjötunga

The common sole is a flatfish living on the sandy or muddy seabed, often burying itself in the substrate. It grows to a maximum length of about 70 cm.

Example species: European plaice

Habitat: Demersal
Main role: Prey
Trophic level: 3,2

Diet: Plaice is predominantly benthivorous, although larger specimens also feed on small demersal fish.

Threats: Highly commercial. The North Sea has the largest fishery for plaice in all of Europe. They are traditionally caught in a directed beam-trawl fishery and in a mixed fishery with sole. Plaice are also a by-catch in inshore and offshore otter-trawl fisheries.

In different languages:

  • SN: pleuronectes platessa
  • EN: european plaice
  • NL: schol
  • GE: Scholle
  • DK: rødspætten
  • FR: plie commune
  • NO: rødspette
  • SE: rödspätta

The European plaice is a common flatfish occurring on sand and muddy sea beds, typically at depths between 10 to 50m, but can be found up to 200m. They are resilient to changes in salinity.

Example species: Dab

Habitat: Demersal
Main role: Prey
Trophic level: 4

Diet: Dab is a dominantly benthivorous fish species, although larger specimens occasionally feed on small demersal fish.

Threats: Dab is commercially fished with trawl nets.

In different languages:

  • SN: limanda limanda
  • EN: dab
  • NL: schar
  • GE: Kliesche
  • DK: ising
  • FR: limande commune
  • NO: sandflyndre
  • SE: sandskädda

Dab is a flatfish with an important role in the food web as both consumer and prey, mainly because of its great abundance. Dab live on sandy bottoms up to 100m in depth.


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This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 20:09. Content is available under GPLv3 unless otherwise noted.